It has been narrated by (Hadrat) Jabir bin Samura that the Prophet used to recite at the noon Salaah (Zuhr Salaah) Surah al-Lail (XCII) (another version says, surah al-Ala (LXXXVII), at the afternoon, Salaah (Asr Salaah) a similar Surah, and at the morning Salaah (Fajr Salaah) a longer passage than that.
It has been narrated by Hadrat Abu Qatada (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu) that in the first two rak’ahs of the noon Salaah (Zuhr Salaah) the Prophet used to recite surah al-Fatihah (I) and thereafter any other surah and in the last two rak’ahs only surah al-Fatihah, and he would sometimes recite loud enough for them to hear the ayah. He would prolong the first rak’ah more than the second, and he acted similarly in the afternoon prayer (Asr Salaah) and the morning Salaah.(Fajr Salaah) [Bukhari & Muslim]
Sunnat -I- Muakkadah in Zuhr Salaah.
Hadrat Ali (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu) used to offer four rak’ahs before the Zuhr Salaah (fard) and used to say that the Prophet did the same and used to recite long surahs in them.
Note: Hadrat Imam Ghazali (May Alllaah bless him) has mentioned in lhya-ulum-uddin that in these four rak’ahs one should recite surah al-Baqara or some other surah of over hundred ayat so as to follow Prophet fully in the matter of recitation of a long surah.