Zakaat


Bahishti Zewar, Fiqh, Part 3-Fasting, Zakaat, Qurbani, Hajj etc. / Sunday, August 31st, 2008

ZAKÂT

The person who has
some wealth and still does not take out zakât for it is regarded as a great
sinner in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. He will be severely punished on the day of
judgement. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The person who
possesses gold and silver and does not give zakât for it, then on the day of
judgement, slabs of fire will be made for him. These slabs will be heated in the
fire of jahannam and his sides, forehead and back will be branded with
them. When these slabs become cool, they will be re-heated and the entire
process will be repeated.” Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The
person who has been given wealth by Allah Ta’ala and despite this does not give
zakât for it, then on the day of judgement this wealth of his will be turned
into a huge poisonous snake which will encircle his neck. It will then tear the
sides of his mouth apart and tell him: ‘I am your wealth and I am your
treasures.'” We seek refuge in Allah Ta’ala. Who can bear such severe
punishment? It is the height of foolishness and stupidity that we are prepared
to pay such a great penalty for a little greed and selfishness on our part. It
is extremely foolish and improper to refuse to spend in the
path of Allah the wealth that Allah Himself has granted to
us.

  1. If a person
    possesses 612.35 grams of silver or 87.479 grams of gold or any currency that
    equals the value of this amount of gold or silver, and this wealth remains in
    his possession for a complete year, then on the expiry of this year it will be
    wajib on him to give zakât for it. If his wealth is less than this, zakât
    will not be wajib. If it is more than this, zakât will still be
    wajib.

  2. A person possessed
    the complete nisâb for about four to six months. Thereafter, this
    nisâb decreased, and after about three months he acquired some other
    wealth (and he once again possesses the complete nisâb, even in such a
    case zakât will be wajib on him. In other words, if a person possesses
    the nisâb at the beginning and at the end of the year, zakât will be
    wajib on him. By the nisâb decreasing during the course of the
    year, one is not absolved of giving one=s zakât. However, if his entire wealth
    is lost and he finds it later, then the beginning of the year will be calculated
    from the time that he finds his wealth. (The period prior to that will not be
    calculated).

  3. A person possessed
    the nisâb but prior to the expiry of one year all his wealth is lost and
    it was not in his possession for the complete year. In such a case zakât will
    not be wajib.

  4. A person possesses
    the full nisâb and also has debts which equal the nisâb. In such a
    case zakât will not be wajib.

  5. If his debts are
    such that if he were to fulfil his debts he will have a remainder of wealth
    which will equal the nisâb, then zakât will be wajib on
    him.

  6. Zakât is
    wajib on jewellery, utensils, ornaments, and brocades that have been made
    with gold or silver. This is irrespective of whether these items are in use or
    not. In other words, zakât is wajib on everything that is made of gold or
    silver. However, if they are less than the nisâb, zakât will not be
    wajib.

  7. If the gold or
    silver is not pure but has been mixed with another metal, then one will have to
    check as to which is more in content. If the gold or silver is more, then the
    rules which are applicable to both will apply here as well. That is, if they
    equal the nisâb, zakât will be wajib. If the content of the other
    metal is more than that of the gold or silver, it will not be regarded as gold
    or silver. The rules that apply to brass, copper, steel, tin, etc. will also
    apply to this metal. These rules will be discussed later.

  8. A person does not
    have the complete nisâb of gold nor of silver. Instead, he has a bit of
    gold and a bit of silver. If both are added together and their value equals the
    nisâb of gold or silver, zakât will be wajib. But if they do not
    equal the nisâb of either gold or silver after adding them together,
    zakât will not be wajib. If the nisâb of gold or silver is
    complete, there is no need to obtain their value.

  9. Assuming that the
    price of 11.664 grams of gold is R25, and for R1 we can get 17.496 grams of
    silver and a person possesses double this amount of gold (i.e. 23.328 grams)
    plus R5 both of which is over and above his needs. Furthermore, he has this gold
    and cash in his possession for a full year. In such a case, zakât will be
    wajib. This is because the 23.328 grams of gold equals R50, and for R50
    one can purchase 874.8 grams of silver (50×17.496g). In addition to this, if the
    R5 were to be added together, this will result in a lot of wealth upon which
    zakât will be wajib. However, if he only possesses the 23.328 grams of
    gold and does not have any cash or silver; zakât will not be
    wajib.

  10. Assuming that we get
    23.328 grams of silver for R1 and a person only possesses R30. Zakât will not be
    wajib and we will not calculate and say that R30 equals 699.84 grams of
    silver (i.e. 30 x 23.328 = 699.84) based on the fact that the rand is actually
    in place of the silver and when we only have gold or silver, then we will take
    the weight into consideration and not the value. (This rule will only apply when
    the coins used to be made of silver. These days, coins are made of copper and
    other cheap metals. We even receive them in return for currency notes. Now the
    ruling will be that the person who possesses coins or notes equal to the current
    value of the nisâb of gold or silver, zakât on this will be
    wajib.)

  11. A person had money
    equal to the nisâb which was over and above his needs. Prior to the
    expiry of the year, he received an additional amount. This additional amount
    will not be calculated separately. Instead, it will be added to the original
    amount and upon the expiry of the year, zakât will be wajib on the entire
    amount and it will be regarded as if the original amount and the additional
    amount was in his possession for one full year.

  12. A person had silver
    which was equal to the nisâb. Prior to the expiry of the year, he
    received an amount of gold (whether more or less than the amount of nisâb). This
    amount will not be calculated separately. Instead, it will be added to the
    original amount of silver and zakât will be wajib on the total amount
    upon the expiry of that year.

  13. With the exception
    of gold and silver, the rule regarding all other metals such as steel, copper,
    brass, etc., the utensils that are made of these metals, clothing, footwear, and
    all other such items is that if these items are for the purpose of trade, zakât
    will be wajib on them if they reach the nisâb of either gold or
    silver and are in the possession of the person for a period of one year.
    However, if these items do not reach the nisâb, zakât will not be
    wajib. If these items are not for the purpose of trade, zakât will not be
    wajib irrespective of the amount one possesses. Even if the value of
    these items reaches thousands of rands, zakât will not be wajib as long
    as they are not for the purpose of trade.

  14. Zakât is not
    wajib on household effects such as utensils, pots, big pots, trays,
    basins, crockery and glassware, the house in which one lives, the clothes which
    one wears, jewellery made of pearls, etc. This is irrespective of the amount and
    irrespective of whether they are being used daily or not. However, if they are
    kept for the purpose of trade, zakât will be wajib on them as well. In
    short, zakât is not wajib on all items apart from gold and silver if they
    are not for the purpose of trade. But if they are for trade, zakât will be
    wajib on them as well.

  15. A person owns
    several homes from which he collects rent. Zakât is not wajib on these
    homes irrespective of their value. Similarly, if a person purchases some
    utensils and hires them out, zakât will not be wajib on these utensils.
    In short, by hiring or renting something out, zakât does not become wajib
    on that thing.

  16. Zakât is not
    wajib on clothes irrespective of how expensive they may be. However, if
    they are embroidered with gold or silver thread and if this thread were to be
    removed and weighed it will be equal to the nisâb, then in such a case
    zakât will be wajib. But if it does not reach the nisâb, zakât
    will not be wajib.

  17. A person possesses
    some gold or silver, and some goods for trade as well. All these will have to be
    calculated together. If they reach the nisâb of either gold or silver,
    zakât will be wajib. If they do not reach the nisâb, zakât will
    not be wajib.

  18. Goods for trade will
    only be regarded as such if they have been purchased with the intention of
    re-sale. If a person purchases some rice or any other item for his domestic
    needs or for a wedding, etc. and thereafter decides to sell this item, zakât
    will not be wajib on this.

  19. Zakât is also
    wajib on the money that is owed to a person by his debtors. Debts are of
    three types:

    The First Type
    : The person loaned some gold, silver
    or money, or sold some tradeable goods to another person. He is owing this money
    and only repays his debt after a year or two. If whatever he loaned is equal to
    or more than the nisâb, zakât will be wajib for all the years that
    he had loaned the money.

    He did not repay the debt at once, but in
    instalments. The moment he pays an amount equal to the value of 128.304 grams of
    silver, zakât will become wajib on him. But if the person repays the
    value of 128.304 grams of silver in instalments as well, zakât will only become
    wajib on the completion of this amount. Each time that this amount is
    paid, zakât on it will have to be given. Whenever the person gives the zakât, he
    will also have to pay for all the previous years in which the zakât was not
    paid.

    If the money owed is less than the nisâb, zakât will not be
    wajib on the person. However, if the person has some other wealth upon
    which zakât is necessary, then this wealth should be added to the money owed.
    If, after adding them together, they equal the nisâb, zakât will be
    wajib on the total amount.

  20. The Second
    Type
    : A person did not loan any cash nor did he give (on credit) any goods
    for trade. Instead, he sold something which was not originally purchased for
    re-sale, eg. he sold some of his personal clothing or some household goods, and
    the person is still owing him the money for these items. In addition to this,
    the amount that he is owing is equal to or more than the nisâb and he
    only repays this amount after several years. Zakât will be wajib for all
    the years. If he does not repay this debt at once, but repays it in instalments,
    then as long as the paid up instalments do not reach the current nisâb of
    silver or gold, zakât will not be wajib on the amount that he collected.
    The moment an instalment reaches the current nisâb, zakât becomes wajib
    for all the years in which zakât was not paid.

  21. The Third
    Type
    : The husband owes his wife the mahr (dowry) which had been
    stipulated at the time of marriage. He only pays this mahr after several
    years. Zakât will only be calculated from the day that she actually receives her
    mahr. Zakât for the previous years will not be wajib. If the
    mahr remains with her for a period of one year after having received it,
    zakât will become wajib on her upon the expiry of one year. But if she
    does not have the mahr (for example, if she spends it), zakât will not be
    wajib.

  22. A rich person upon
    whom zakât is wajib gives his zakât before the expiry of one year and
    does not wait until the end of the year. This is permissible and his zakât will
    be considered to be fulfilled. But if the person is not rich and envisaged
    receiving some money in the near future, and therefore gave his zakât before the
    expiry of the year, this zakât of his will not be considered to be fulfilled.
    When he receives the money and thereafter a year passes, he will have to give
    his zakât again.

  23. It is permissible
    for a rich person to give zakât for several years beforehand. But if his wealth
    increases in any given year, he will have to give zakât for the extra wealth
    that he obtained.

  24. A person has Rs. 1000
    over and above his basic needs. He also envisages receiving another Rs. 1000 from
    somewhere. Before the expiry of the year, he gives zakât for the total Rs. 2000.
    This is also permissible. However, if his money gets less than the nisâb
    at the end of that year, then zakât will not be wajib on him and the
    zakât which he had already given will be regarded as a voluntary charity
    (sadaqah-e-nâfilah).

  25. A person had some
    wealth for a full year but before he could give the zakât, all his wealth was
    stolen or disappeared in some other way. He will be absolved from giving zakât.
    But if the person gives his wealth away or causes it to be destroyed in some way
    or the other, then he will not be absolved from giving the zakât. It will remain
    wajib upon him.

  26. After the expiry of
    the year, a person gave all his wealth in charity. Zakât will not be
    wajib on him.

  27. A person had Rs. 2000.
    After the expiry of one year, Rs. 1000 was stolen or he gave it in charity. He will
    be absolved from giving the zakât of Rs. 1000. He will now only have to give zakât
    for Rs. 1000.

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