If a person
possesses 612.35 grams of silver or 87.479 grams of gold or any currency that
equals the value of this amount of gold or silver, and this wealth remains in
his possession for a complete year, then on the expiry of this year it will be
wajib on him to give zakât for it. If his wealth is less than this, zakât
will not be wajib. If it is more than this, zakât will still be
A person possessed
the complete nisâb for about four to six months. Thereafter, this
nisâb decreased, and after about three months he acquired some other
wealth (and he once again possesses the complete nisâb, even in such a
case zakât will be wajib on him. In other words, if a person possesses
the nisâb at the beginning and at the end of the year, zakât will be
wajib on him. By the nisâb decreasing during the course of the
year, one is not absolved of giving one=s zakât. However, if his entire wealth
is lost and he finds it later, then the beginning of the year will be calculated
from the time that he finds his wealth. (The period prior to that will not be
A person possessed
the nisâb but prior to the expiry of one year all his wealth is lost and
it was not in his possession for the complete year. In such a case zakât will
not be wajib.
A person possesses
the full nisâb and also has debts which equal the nisâb. In such a
case zakât will not be wajib.
If his debts are
such that if he were to fulfil his debts he will have a remainder of wealth
which will equal the nisâb, then zakât will be wajib on
wajib on jewellery, utensils, ornaments, and brocades that have been made
with gold or silver. This is irrespective of whether these items are in use or
not. In other words, zakât is wajib on everything that is made of gold or
silver. However, if they are less than the nisâb, zakât will not be
If the gold or
silver is not pure but has been mixed with another metal, then one will have to
check as to which is more in content. If the gold or silver is more, then the
rules which are applicable to both will apply here as well. That is, if they
equal the nisâb, zakât will be wajib. If the content of the other
metal is more than that of the gold or silver, it will not be regarded as gold
or silver. The rules that apply to brass, copper, steel, tin, etc. will also
apply to this metal. These rules will be discussed later.
A person does not
have the complete nisâb of gold nor of silver. Instead, he has a bit of
gold and a bit of silver. If both are added together and their value equals the
nisâb of gold or silver, zakât will be wajib. But if they do not
equal the nisâb of either gold or silver after adding them together,
zakât will not be wajib. If the nisâb of gold or silver is
complete, there is no need to obtain their value.
Assuming that the
price of 11.664 grams of gold is R25, and for R1 we can get 17.496 grams of
silver and a person possesses double this amount of gold (i.e. 23.328 grams)
plus R5 both of which is over and above his needs. Furthermore, he has this gold
and cash in his possession for a full year. In such a case, zakât will be
wajib. This is because the 23.328 grams of gold equals R50, and for R50
one can purchase 874.8 grams of silver (50×17.496g). In addition to this, if the
R5 were to be added together, this will result in a lot of wealth upon which
zakât will be wajib. However, if he only possesses the 23.328 grams of
gold and does not have any cash or silver; zakât will not be
Assuming that we get
23.328 grams of silver for R1 and a person only possesses R30. Zakât will not be
wajib and we will not calculate and say that R30 equals 699.84 grams of
silver (i.e. 30 x 23.328 = 699.84) based on the fact that the rand is actually
in place of the silver and when we only have gold or silver, then we will take
the weight into consideration and not the value. (This rule will only apply when
the coins used to be made of silver. These days, coins are made of copper and
other cheap metals. We even receive them in return for currency notes. Now the
ruling will be that the person who possesses coins or notes equal to the current
value of the nisâb of gold or silver, zakât on this will be
A person had money
equal to the nisâb which was over and above his needs. Prior to the
expiry of the year, he received an additional amount. This additional amount
will not be calculated separately. Instead, it will be added to the original
amount and upon the expiry of the year, zakât will be wajib on the entire
amount and it will be regarded as if the original amount and the additional
amount was in his possession for one full year.
A person had silver
which was equal to the nisâb. Prior to the expiry of the year, he
received an amount of gold (whether more or less than the amount of nisâb). This
amount will not be calculated separately. Instead, it will be added to the
original amount of silver and zakât will be wajib on the total amount
upon the expiry of that year.
With the exception
of gold and silver, the rule regarding all other metals such as steel, copper,
brass, etc., the utensils that are made of these metals, clothing, footwear, and
all other such items is that if these items are for the purpose of trade, zakât
will be wajib on them if they reach the nisâb of either gold or
silver and are in the possession of the person for a period of one year.
However, if these items do not reach the nisâb, zakât will not be
wajib. If these items are not for the purpose of trade, zakât will not be
wajib irrespective of the amount one possesses. Even if the value of
these items reaches thousands of rands, zakât will not be wajib as long
as they are not for the purpose of trade.
Zakât is not
wajib on household effects such as utensils, pots, big pots, trays,
basins, crockery and glassware, the house in which one lives, the clothes which
one wears, jewellery made of pearls, etc. This is irrespective of the amount and
irrespective of whether they are being used daily or not. However, if they are
kept for the purpose of trade, zakât will be wajib on them as well. In
short, zakât is not wajib on all items apart from gold and silver if they
are not for the purpose of trade. But if they are for trade, zakât will be
wajib on them as well.
A person owns
several homes from which he collects rent. Zakât is not wajib on these
homes irrespective of their value. Similarly, if a person purchases some
utensils and hires them out, zakât will not be wajib on these utensils.
In short, by hiring or renting something out, zakât does not become wajib
on that thing.
Zakât is not
wajib on clothes irrespective of how expensive they may be. However, if
they are embroidered with gold or silver thread and if this thread were to be
removed and weighed it will be equal to the nisâb, then in such a case
zakât will be wajib. But if it does not reach the nisâb, zakât
will not be wajib.
A person possesses
some gold or silver, and some goods for trade as well. All these will have to be
calculated together. If they reach the nisâb of either gold or silver,
zakât will be wajib. If they do not reach the nisâb, zakât will
not be wajib.
Goods for trade will
only be regarded as such if they have been purchased with the intention of
re-sale. If a person purchases some rice or any other item for his domestic
needs or for a wedding, etc. and thereafter decides to sell this item, zakât
will not be wajib on this.
Zakât is also
wajib on the money that is owed to a person by his debtors. Debts are of
The First Type: The person loaned some gold, silver
or money, or sold some tradeable goods to another person. He is owing this money
and only repays his debt after a year or two. If whatever he loaned is equal to
or more than the nisâb, zakât will be wajib for all the years that
he had loaned the money.
He did not repay the debt at once, but in
instalments. The moment he pays an amount equal to the value of 128.304 grams of
silver, zakât will become wajib on him. But if the person repays the
value of 128.304 grams of silver in instalments as well, zakât will only become
wajib on the completion of this amount. Each time that this amount is
paid, zakât on it will have to be given. Whenever the person gives the zakât, he
will also have to pay for all the previous years in which the zakât was not
If the money owed is less than the nisâb, zakât will not be
wajib on the person. However, if the person has some other wealth upon
which zakât is necessary, then this wealth should be added to the money owed.
If, after adding them together, they equal the nisâb, zakât will be
wajib on the total amount.
Type: A person did not loan any cash nor did he give (on credit) any goods
for trade. Instead, he sold something which was not originally purchased for
re-sale, eg. he sold some of his personal clothing or some household goods, and
the person is still owing him the money for these items. In addition to this,
the amount that he is owing is equal to or more than the nisâb and he
only repays this amount after several years. Zakât will be wajib for all
the years. If he does not repay this debt at once, but repays it in instalments,
then as long as the paid up instalments do not reach the current nisâb of
silver or gold, zakât will not be wajib on the amount that he collected.
The moment an instalment reaches the current nisâb, zakât becomes wajib
for all the years in which zakât was not paid.
Type: The husband owes his wife the mahr (dowry) which had been
stipulated at the time of marriage. He only pays this mahr after several
years. Zakât will only be calculated from the day that she actually receives her
mahr. Zakât for the previous years will not be wajib. If the
mahr remains with her for a period of one year after having received it,
zakât will become wajib on her upon the expiry of one year. But if she
does not have the mahr (for example, if she spends it), zakât will not be
A rich person upon
whom zakât is wajib gives his zakât before the expiry of one year and
does not wait until the end of the year. This is permissible and his zakât will
be considered to be fulfilled. But if the person is not rich and envisaged
receiving some money in the near future, and therefore gave his zakât before the
expiry of the year, this zakât of his will not be considered to be fulfilled.
When he receives the money and thereafter a year passes, he will have to give
his zakât again.
It is permissible
for a rich person to give zakât for several years beforehand. But if his wealth
increases in any given year, he will have to give zakât for the extra wealth
that he obtained.
A person has Rs. 1000
over and above his basic needs. He also envisages receiving another Rs. 1000 from
somewhere. Before the expiry of the year, he gives zakât for the total Rs. 2000.
This is also permissible. However, if his money gets less than the nisâb
at the end of that year, then zakât will not be wajib on him and the
zakât which he had already given will be regarded as a voluntary charity
A person had some
wealth for a full year but before he could give the zakât, all his wealth was
stolen or disappeared in some other way. He will be absolved from giving zakât.
But if the person gives his wealth away or causes it to be destroyed in some way
or the other, then he will not be absolved from giving the zakât. It will remain
wajib upon him.
After the expiry of
the year, a person gave all his wealth in charity. Zakât will not be
wajib on him.
A person had Rs. 2000.
After the expiry of one year, Rs. 1000 was stolen or he gave it in charity. He will
be absolved from giving the zakât of Rs. 1000. He will now only have to give zakât
for Rs. 1000.