Three Kinds Of Hajj

Fiqh, Hajj - Merits and Precepts / Monday, November 2nd, 2009

Defining one’s intention (Niyyat) exclusively for ‘Hajj’ Pilgrimage on starting the journey and wearing ‘Ihram’ with this very intention. ‘Hajj’ and ‘Umra’ are not added together. The Hajj of this kind is called ‘Ifrad’ and its’ observer is named as ‘Mufrid’.

Adding ‘Hajj’ and ‘Umra’ together and defining one’s intention for both of them from the very beginning. ‘Ihram’ is also to be worn jointly for both. It is called ‘Qiran’ and one who performs this kind is termed as ‘Qarin’.

Adding Umra and Hajj together in a way that from Miqat the Ihram is first worn only for Umra. Hajj is not intended with this Ihram. On reaching Mecca the obligations of : Umra are discharged and the pilgrim has his hair cut or shaven, thus ending his Ihram of Umra. On the 8th of the month of Zilhijja the Ihram for Hajj is worn a fresh from ‘Masjid-ul-Haram’ This kind of Hajj is named as ‘Tamattu’ and its performer is called as ‘Mutamatte’.
A ‘Hajj’ pilgrim is at liberty to chose anyone of these three kinds but Qiran is pre-eminent among them. All the three kinds differ with one another in respect of one’s defining intention and wearing ‘Ihram’ therefor. They are also at variance with one another in some practices of performing them. Their distinctions should therefore be carefully instilled in mind.

The Difference Between The Abovementioned Three Kinds Of Hajj:
The first point where these three kinds are at variance with one another lies in determining one’s intention therefor. In the first kind of Hajj that is to say in ‘Ifrad’ at the time of wearing ‘Ihram’ one has to intend to perform Hajj only. In the Hajj of the 2nd nature, the intention is to be determined for ‘Hajj’ and Umra both. In the third that is in ‘Tamattu’ at the time of wearing first ‘Ihram’, the intention is to be particularized to Umra only.

The other prominent difference liesin ‘Ihram’ wearing the duration of which in the first two kinds lasts upto the fulfillment of all the practices of ‘Hajj’, while in the third it ends on reaching Mecca when one has one’s hair cut or shaven after being free from the essentials of Umra i.e. Tawaf of Ka’ba and Sa’i between Safa and Marwah. He will be able to stay in Mecca without the restriction of ‘Ihram’ upto the 8th ‘Zilhijja’ on which date he will again wear ‘Ihram’ on Masjid-ul-Haram (or from his residence in Mecca etc.) for the purpose of ‘Hajj’. the third kind of ‘Hajj’ is, of course, comparatively more convenient but ‘Qiran’ is pre-eminent provided one successfully sticks to the long-lasting restrictions of ‘Ihram’. Otherwise, it is better perform ‘Tamattu’. Anyhow, the practices and dictates for Hajj, Umra and Ihram are similar to one another in all the three kinds. the only difference lies in the fact that for a ‘Qiran’ and ‘Mutamatte’, an offering of sacrifice in Mina on the 10th Zilhijja is wajib (essential) while for a ‘Mufrid’ it is only ‘Mustahab’ (desirable).

The intention detailed above for all the three kinds of ‘Hajj’ stands determined only by way of making up one’s mind and by uttering the words thereof in one’s own language. However it is better to pronounce it in Arabic language. For instance, in ‘Ifrad’ the intention is to be pronounced as follows :

“O Allah : I intend ‘Hajj’ Render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval. ”
The intention for ‘Qiran’ should be pronounced as under :

“O Allah ! I intend Hajj and Umra both. Render them easy for me and accord them Thy approval.”

In case of ‘Tamattu’ the intention at the time of wearing first ‘Ihram’ is to be pronounced with these words :

” O Allah : I intend Umra. Render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval.”

The intention has been depicted herein both the languages, Arabic and English. If one feels and difficulty in cramming up the words of the Arabic text, the pronouncement of its subject matter in one’s own language is permissible irrespective of its being in any of the languages, English, Urdu, Persian, Panjabi, Bangla, or Pushto.

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