The Sunnats and Mustahabs of Adhaan and Iqaamah
The sunnats of adhaan and iqaamah are of
two types. Some are related to the mu’azzin while others are related to
the adhaan and iqaamah. We will first mention the sunnats
related to the mu’azzin, and then those that are related to the adhaan
Sunnats related to the mu’azzin
1. The mu’azzin has to be a male. The adhaan
and iqaamah of a female is makruh-e-tahrimi. If a woman calls out
adhaan, it will have to be repeated, but not the iqaamah. This is
so because repetition of the iqaamah is not stipulated as opposed to the
repetition of adhaan.
2. The mu’azzin has to be of sound mind. The adhaan
and iqaamah of a lunatic, intoxicated person or immature child is
makruh. Their adhaan will have to be repeated and not their
3. The mu’azzin must know the necessary rules
applicable to him and he must also know the times of the different salaats.
If an ignorant person calls out the adhaan, he will not get the same
reward as that of a mu’azzin.
4. The mu’azzin must be pious and religiously-minded
and he must be aware of the condition of the people – reminding those who do not
attend the congregation. He must do this if he has no fear of anyone causing
harm to him.
5. The mu’azzin must have a loud voice.
Sunnats related to the adhaan and iqaamah
1. The adhaan should be called out at an elevated
place outside the musjid. The iqaamah should be called out inside the
musjid. To call out the adhaan inside the musjid is makruh-e-tanzihi.
However, it is not makruh to call out the second adhaan of
jumu’ah inside the musjid in front of the pulpit (mimbar). In fact,
this is practised in all Muslim countries.
2. The adhaan has to be called out standing. If anyone
calls it out while sitting, this will be makruh and it will have to be
repeated. However, if a traveller is on his mount or a person gives adhaan
for his own salaat, it will not have to be repeated.
3. The adhaan has to be called out in a loud voice.
However, if a person is calling out adhaan for his own salaat, he
has the choice to say it aloud or softly. Even then, there is more reward in
saying it aloud.
4. It is mustahab to insert the fore-fingers into the
ears at the time of calling out the adhaan.
5. The words of the adhaan should be said with a pause
between them, while the iqaamah should be said quickly. In other words,
when saying the takbeers of the adhaan, the mu’azzin should
pause after every two takbeers so that those who are listening to the
adhaan can repeat the words. Apart from the takbeers, he should pause
after every sentence and thereafter continue with the next word. If, due to some
reason, he does not pause in this way, it will be mustahab to repeat the
adhaan. If the iqaamah was called out by pausing, it is not
mustahab to repeat it.
6. When calling out adhaan, it is sunnah to
turn towards the right and left when saying Hayya alas salaat and
Hayya alal falaah. This is irrespective of whether the adhaan is for
a salaat or for some other reason. However, his chest and feet should not
turn away from the qiblah.
7. Adhaan and iqaamah should be called while
facing the qiblah as long as he is not mounted on an animal. It is
makruh-e-tanzihi to call out adhaan and iqaamah while one is
not facing the qiblah.
8. At the time of calling out the adhaan it is
necessary for the person to be pure from hadath-e-akbar (major impurity)
and mustahab to be pure from both the major and minor impurities. At the
time of calling out the iqaamah, it is necessary to be pure from
both the impurities. If a person calls out adhaan while in a state of
hadath-e-akbar, this will be makruh-e-tahrimi and it will be
mustahab to repeat that adhaan. Similarly, if a person calls out
iqaamah while in a state of major or minor impurity, this will be
makruh-e-tahrimi but it is not mustahab to repeat the
9. It is sunnah to say the words of the adhaan and
iqaamah in the sequence shown to us. If a person says a latter word first,
for example, he says Ash hado anna Muhammadar Rasulullah before
Ash hado an la ilaaha illa Allahu, or he says Hayya alal falaah
before Hayya alas salaat; then in such a case, just the latter word
should be repeated. In the first example, after saying Ash hado an la ilaaha
illa Allahu he should repeat Ash hado anna Muhammadan Rasulullah. In
the second example, after saying Hayya alas salaat, he should repeat
Hayya alal falaah. It is not necessary to repeat the entire adhaan.
10. While calling out the adhaan and iqaamah,
no other words should be spoken, even if they be a greeting or a reply to a
greeting. If a person speaks while calling out adhaan or iqaamah
and he spoke considerably, he should repeat the adhaan and not the