The Mode Of Tawaf

Fiqh, Hajj - Merits and Precepts / Wednesday, November 4th, 2009

Tawaf (Circumambulation) means turning round and round something but in the terminology of Shari’at one’s going round the Holy Ka’ba seven times with the intention of Tawaf is called ‘Tawaf’. One complete circuit is named as ‘Shaut’. Circumambulating any thing or place other than ‘Baitullah’ is unlawful. For ‘Tawaf’, intention is obligatory. Without defining an intention ‘Tawaf’ will stand unobserved, in whatever number the circuits may be completed. The intention for Tawaf, is to be pronounced with these words :-

“O Allah ! I intend Tawaf for the sake of Thy pleasure; Render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval”.

To vitalize the sense of this intention in mind is ‘Fardh’ (foremost obligation) but to utter it is words as well is preferable. With this intention determind as above one should stand in front of ‘Baitullah’, on the side of that corner where ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ is fixed, in such a way that the entire ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ falls on one’s right hand. Thereafter, with the intention of ‘Tawaf’ one should move a bit towards right side to such an extent that ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ becomes just in one’s front. While standing in front of ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ one should raise one’s hands in the way they are raised at the time of first ‘Takbir: beginning the prayers, then he should recite as follows :-

If the above is not preserved in memory in full or due to rush of people it is inconvenient to pronounce it completely, your saying only (Bismillahi Allah-o-Akbar Wa Lillah Hil Hamd) will suffice. Thereafter, you are to let your hands down and to kiss ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’. Both your handsshould touch ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ in the position as they touch the ground at the time of your prostration in prayers and then keeping your head between the palms of the hands kiss the Hajar-e-Aswad with reverence. If it is not possible even to touch Hajar-e-Aswad with your hands, you may touch it with some stick or with some other thing and then kiss this particular thing. In case it is also not possible, raise your hands towards ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’. You must be very careful that you cause no trouble ‘o others. If you feel causing trouble to others, leave this much even ; only raise your hands upto your ears in a possition confronting to ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ and then be content with kissing your hands only, because kissing ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’ is only Mustahab (desirable) while causing trouble to a ‘Muslim’ is ‘Haram’ (unlawful, forbidden). After the Istilam to the Hajar-e-Aswad you are to move to your right hand towards the side of the gate of the Ka’ba and circumambulate ‘Baitullah’. On reaching Rukn-e-Yamani it is Sunnat to touch it with your both hands or with your right hand. To kiss it or to touch it with your left hand is against ‘Sunnat’. You may, however, pass by Rukn-e-Yamani without having a touch in case you do not find a chance to do so.

Note :- Baitullah has four corners, Every corner is called ‘Rukn’. The first ‘Rukn’ is the corner of ‘Hajar-e-Aswad’. Just confronting to it is the western corner called Rukn-e-Yamani. The rest two corners are named as Rukn-e-Shami and Rukn-e- Iraqi, but in Tawaf, no action is related to those two corners. On completing a circuit of Baitullah when you return to Hajar-e- Aswad you are again to pronounce (Bismillahi Allah-o-Akbar) and again to kiss Hajar-e-Aswad or otherwise to touch it and to kiss your hands as before, In this way you completed a ‘Shaut’. Now, you are to complete similar seven ‘Shauts’ starting from and ending to Hajar-e-Aswad. These seven ‘Shauts’ will complete one ‘Tawaf’. After completing seven ‘Shauts’ you should perform Istilam of Hajar-e-Aswad in the same way for the 8th time as well, i.e. you should kiss it or if you do not find an opportunity to do so, then you should kiss your hand etc. as mentioned before.

Rule Of Action
Istilam of Hajar-e-Aswad that is to say its kissing or touching for the first time as well as for the 8th time is unanimously accepted to be as “Sunnat-e-Mu’kkada” (Emphasized Sunnat). Other ‘Istilams’ in between these two are not so much emphasized.

Rule Of Action
When ‘Iqamat’ is being pronounced for the congregation of prayers and at the time of Imam’s standing for ‘Khutba’ (Sermon), making a ‘Tawaf’ is ‘Makroh’ (undesirable). With this exception ‘Tawaf’ is not Makroh at any time, even at the times when prayers is treated to be so (Hayatul-Qulob).

Invocations During Tawaf
During Tawaf it is treated to be most excelent to remain busy with the remembrance of Allah with the invocations for his blessings. The invocation offered during Tawaf is granted by Allah. There is no particular text for invocation or remembrance of Allah fixed for this occasion. In Hadith these two invocations have been narrated which are very brief. The one which is to be pronounced between Rukn-e-Yamani and Hajar-e-Aswad is :-

“Our Lord! Give us good in this worldandgood in the world hereafter and defend us from the torment of the Hell.”

The 2nd invocation which has been narrated to be pronounced between Hajar-e-Aswad and Hatim is :-

“O Allah ! make me content with what Thou granted to me and bless me with its abundence ; guard (my family and my wealth) whatever is behind me. There is no god but Allah. He is unique, He hath no partner; For Him is the kingdom and for Him is the praise. He hath power over all things.”

Imam Mohammad says in his ‘Mabsot’ that it is not proper to fix particular forms of invocation for the various places of ‘Hajj’ pilgrimage. You may pray for whatever objects you require and in whatever words you feel intrested, as sticking to a particular text of invocation often loses yours ense of humiliation and tenderness of your heart. For every Shaut of Tawaf, most of the different texts of invocation, which have been narrated from Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) but they are not specifically meant for Tawaf . It these texts are committed to one’s memory and one can pronounce them understandingly, then well and good. However, it is, in no way, advisable that most of the common people carry some pamphlets in their hands during their Tawaf and try hard to read out these texts of invocation without following them. Therefore, it is far better to pray whatever one feels, in his own language.

Rule Of Action

During Tawaf, remembrance of Allah is preferable. Recitation of the Holy Qur’an is also allowed but remembrance of Allah, recitation of the Quran or invocation should not be aloud, so that it may not disturb others who perform Tawaf. Hence, may be well realized the undesirability of the noise made by Mu’allims while teaching invocations to the people.

Two Rakats Of Prayers After Tawaf
After Tawaf two Rak’ats of prayers pertaining to Tawaf are Wajib (Hidaya). These two Rak’ats are Wajib after every Tawaf; though it may be a Nafl Tawaf (Zubda). It is Sunnat and preferable to perform these two Rak’ats on the back side of Maqam- e-Ibrahim (Bukhari and Muslim). Maqam-e-Ibrahim is the stone which, for the sake of Hazrat Ibrahim (the great Prophet, the friend of Allah) was brought by the angels from Heaven for the construction of ‘Baitullah’. It has the impression of Hazrat Ibrahim’s steps. In the Holy Quran, these two Rak’ats have been ordered to be offered behind this stone.

“And take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayers.”

Rule Of Action
Saying two Rak’ats of Tawaf behind Maqam-e-Ibrahim means that Maqam-e-Ibrahim falls between one who performs the prayers and Baitullah. It is preferable to be as nearer to Maqam-e-Ibrahim as possible. Yet there is no harm to be at some distance. To have an access forward by causing trouble to others is merely a show of ignorance. Trying to reach just adjacent to Maqam-e-Ibrahim at rush hours causes inconvenience to yourself and annoyonce to others. It is therefore better to say your prayers at some distance but do not go far away unnecessarily and keep Maqam-e-Ibrahim between you and Baitullah.

Rule Of Action

Two Rak’ats of Tawaf are not lawful to be offered at undesirable (Makroh) hours, that is to say, at the time of rising and setting of the sun and at noon (midday) unlike Tawaf which is lawful in these hours as well (Zubda).

Rule Of Action
The person who may have an access near Maqam-e-Ibrahim should say his two Rak’ats of Tawaf with a brief recitation of the Holy Quran therein and should leave the place after a short invocation so that others may not be annoyed. Long invocations and drawn out Nafls should be avoided here and if desired should be said at some other place.

Rule Of Action
These two Rak’ats must be said just after completion of your Tawaf. Unnecessary delay is treated to be as Makroh (undesi-
rable). (Zbda).

Rule Of Action
Adding several Tawafs togather and saying two Rak’ats each for all the Tawafs at a time is Makroh. But undesirable (Makroh) hours are an exception when several Tawafs can be added togather and after these hours having passed two Rak’ats, each for every Tawaf can be said at a time though separately.

Rule Of Action
In case you could not say these two Rak’ats of Tawaf behind Maqam-e-Ibrahim, they may be said somewhere in its vicinity or in ‘Hatim’. This obligation will stand discharged even if the Rak’ats are said out of ‘Haram’, but it will be regarded as ‘Makroh’ (not desirable).

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