All the ulama are agreed on this fact that Rasulullah Sal’am only performed Haj once after the hijrat. That was during the 10th year Hijri, which incidentally was the last year of his life. On this Haj journey such things were seen from him as is normally seen from someone who is about to take leave. Hence this Haj has become known as the Hajjatul-Widaa (the Farewell Haj). It was as if the Rasulullah Sal’am was bidding farewell to all his companions present there with him before his final departure to his Lord.
When initially Rasulullah Sal’am announced his intention to proceed for Haj thousands came forward with the same intention of being of those most fortunate ones to accompany him. And whoever heard of it expressed the desire to be with him. A large number of them had gathered in Madina before the departure date. Many joined on the way. Some awaited him in Mecca and some even traveled directly to Arafaat to join the vast host of Sahaaba there. According to Lam’aat on Abu Dawood their total number reached one hundred and twenty-four thousand.
Rasulullah Sal’am performed Zuhr, salaah in Madina on the 24th or 25 or 26 of Zil-Qadah and said Asr prayers at Zul Hulaifa. (According to the historians it may have been either on Thursday, Friday or Saturday. Those who say the departure was on a Friday seem to be in the wrong because according to the most correct reports, they performed Zuhr four rak’aats before proceeding. So it could not have been on a Friday: In my own humble opinion the Rasul Sal’am and his companions left Madina on Saturday the 25th of Zil-Qadah.)
At Zul Hulaifa they spent the night and here Rasulullah Sal’am consorted with all his wives who were present. For this reason the ulama say it is mustahab to have sexual relations with one’s wife, if she accompanies him, before putting on the ihraam, so that both may remain chaste during the period in ihraam which often can be a long time.
On the next day about the tie of Zuhr, Rasulullah Sal’am performed ghusl for the ihraam. Then he donned the ihraam clothes, preformed salaah in the mosque of Zul Hulaifa and made niyyat for the ihraam of a Qaarin. (The ulama say that this ihraam as from the outset for Qiraan). Here Rasulullah Sal’am also gave the Sahaaba R.A. the choice of putting on ihraam for Qiraan, Tamattu or Ifraad. Hazrat Jibra’il A.S. came to him at night and said: “This valley of Aqeeq is a blessed one. Perform salaah here and put on ihraam for Haj and Umrah.” Hence Rasulullah Sal’am chose to be a Qaarin.
Having performed salaah the Rasul Sal’am came from the mosque, mounted his she-camel and loudly recited the Labbaik. Many thought that he only started his ihraam at this moment. This is not so because it actually started in the mosque and there only those near to him heard his Talbiya (Labbaik). Sitting on the camel his voice reached further.
From Zul Hulaifa they proceeded and climbed the mountain of Baida near Zul Hulaifa. As we know it is mustahab for the Haji in ihraam to recite the Talbiya aloud at every high place, Rasulullah sal’am again recited it. From here the voice reached even further. Some Sahaaba R.A. were under the misunderstanding that the niyyat for ihraam was made here.
The procession went in the direction of Mecca. Hazrat Jibra’il A.S. appeared and told the Rasul Sal’am to inform the companions that they should recite the Talbiya loudly. This they did. When they reached the valley of Rowhaa they performed salaah there and he said to them: “Seventy Nabis have performed salaah here.”
Rasulullah Sal’am luggage and Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A. were on the same camel which was given into the care of Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A.’s slave. When they reached they valley of Araj they had to wait for a long time for the slave to arrive. After some time of waiting he arrived and explained that the camel and goods had been lost. Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A. was overtaken by anger and beat the slave. Seeing this Rasulullah Sal’am smiled and said: “Look at what this muhrim is doing now.” (See what he does while in ihraam). When the companions came to know that Rasulullah Sal’am goods had been lost, they quickly prepared food and brought it to hi. He called Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A:
“Come, Allah has sent good food.”
However, Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A. was still angered and Rasulullah Sal’am said:
“O Hazrat Abu Bakr, let your anger pass.”
Thereafter Hazrat Saad R.A. and Abu Qais R.A. brought their camel laden with goods and bid Rasulullah Sal’am accept theirs but he replied:
“May Allah bless you, with Allah’s grace our camel and goods have been found.”
At the valley of Asfaan near Mecca. Hazrat Suraqa R.A. said to the Rasul Sal’am: “O Rasulullah, teach us the way to perform Haj as if we were born this day (and knew nothing).” The Rasul Sal’am then told him what to do on entering Mecca.
At a place called Sarif, Aa’isha R.A. started her menstruation. As a result of this she was greatly troubled and disappointed and started weeping. “Oh, now my whole journey has come to naught: Haj is near and I have become unclean.” Rasulullah Sal’am consoled her: “No Aa’isha, this is indeed something that happens to every woman.” He then told here what to do in her predicament. Then he told those Sahaaba R.A. who had no animals to slaughter with them to enter Mecca, perform umrah and free themselves from the ihraam.
Very near Mecca at the valley of Azraq Rasulullah Sal’am said: “I see before me now that moment when Hazrat Moosa A.S. passed this way for Haj, fingers in the ears, loudly calling out the Labbaik.”
At the Zu-Tuwa which is very near Mecca they spent the night. Then in the morning he performed ghusl once more for entrance into Mecca. Thereafter at the time of Dhuhaa on Sunday the 4th of Zil Haj he entered Mecca. (Most historians are more or less agreed on this date. In my opinion Zil Qadah had 29 days. Having left Madina on a Saturday they entered Mecca on a Sunday, the 9th day of travel).
They went straight o the Masjidul Haraam, kissed the Hajarul Aswad and tawaaf. No Tahiyatul Masjid salaah was performed.
After tawaaf they performed two rak’ah salaah at the Maqaam-e-Ibrahim, reciting therein Surah Al Kaafiroon and Surah Ikhlaas. Kissing the Hajarul Aswad once more, they mounted the hill Safa until they could see the Ka’ba. Standing there, they prayed for a long while, reciting the takbeer and tahmeed. They then walked between Safa and Marwa seven times. When they came to Marwa in the end the Rasul Sal’am commanded those without ‘hadee’ (animals for slaughter) to free themselves from the ihraam. Then Rasulullah Sal’am (animals for slaughter) to free themselves from the ihraam. Then Rasulullah Sal’am went to his residence and remained in Mecca for four more days.
On the morning of Zil Haj the 8th at the time of Chasht salaah he left for Mina. All the companions had now put on ihraam for Haj and accompanied him to Mina where they performed five salaahs. Surah Murslaat was revealed on the evening of this day. On the next day (Friday) after sunrise they proceeded to Arafaat, where some companions had erected a tent for Rasulullah Sal’ama at the Masjid Namirah. Rasulullah Sal’am stayed in it for a short while and then mounted his camel Qaswa to go in the direction of the valley of Arafaat. There he delivered a long sermon.
Among the things he said were: “O people, perhaps you shall not see me again after this. After this we shall not meet again at this place……..”
After the sermon Hazrat Bilaal R.A. was commanded to call aloud the Azaan and they performed Zuhr and Asr salaah in the time of Zuhr. After salaah Rasulullah Sal’am went onto the plain of Arafaat on his camel and from then until maghrib made duaa to Allah. During this period Hazrat Um Fazl R.A. wanted to find out if he was fasting or not. She sent a cup of milk and the Rasul Sal’am drank it sitting on his camel so that all could see he was not fasting.
During this period also one of the Sahaaba R.A. fell from his camel and died. Rasulullah Sal’am commanded that he be wrapped in his ihraam clothes for burial and said that on the day of Qiyaamah he shall be raised up still reciting the Talbiya.
During this period a group from Najd arrived and one of them asked Rasulullah Sal’am: “What is Haj? ” The Rasul Sal’am commanded someone to proclaim aloud that Haj means to step over at Arafaat for a time, “Whoever arrives here before day break on the 10th of Zil Haj had performed Haj. (Abu Dawood)
Rasulullah Sal’am prayed until the time of Maghrib for the forgiveness of his ummat with many tears with much humility. Allah promised to forgive all sins except injustice. Then he again begged: “O Allah, thou can forgive that too; and of Thy own accord can Thou right the wrongs done against the unjustly treated ones; and Thou can forgive unjust.”
During this period was revealed the verse:
“Today have I perfected you religion for you and have completed my favor for you.”
When this verse was revealed, the weight of revelation became so great that the camel could not bear it and had to sit down.
After sunset Rasulullah Sal’am left Arafaat before performing Maghrib salaah. On this part of the journey the camel moved at a very fast pace as if to show exceeding happiness and Rasulullah Sal’am had to hold her back. Whenever they ascended some hill, he held the reins loosely but as soon as level ground appeared he held the reins tight. At times he held the reins so tight that the cake head was pulled so much back that it touched the canopy over the saddle.
Hazrat Asaama bin Zaid R.A. traveled with Rasulullah Sal’am on the same camel on this part of the journey. Near Muzdalifah Rasulullah Sal’am descended from his camel in order to urinate. Afterwards Hazrat Asaama R.A. poured the water for him to perform wudhu. Later it became fixed habit for Hazrat Ibn Umar R.A. that whenever he reached this place during Haj, he descended to make wudhu, pointing out that Rasulullah sal’am made wudhu there. Having made wudhu, Hazrat Asaama R.A. reminded Rasulullah Sal’am about Maghrib salaah but he replied: “Let us proceed and say Magrib prayers at Muzadalifah.”
When they reached Muzdalifah, Rasulullah Sal’am once more performed wudhu and said Maghrib and Esha prayers together. After salaah he remained busy with duaa. According to some reports, Allah accepted his plea on behalf of the unjust ones here too.
On this same night he sent the women, children and the aged ones ahead to Mina because he feared that they would find great difficulty in traveling with this vast crowd. With the rest of the companions he remained till the next morning. They said Fajr salaah and left Muzdalifah for Mina before the sun rose. This time Hazrat Asaama R.A. had taken his place among those who walked and Hazrat Fadhl bin Abbaas R.A. sat with Rasulullah Sal’am on the camel. Hazrat Fadhl R.A. was still a very young man. On route a young girl came to ask Rasulullah Sal’am a question about Haj Badal on behalf of her father. Hazrat Fadhl R.A. looked at the girl and Rasulullah Sal’am with his blessed hand turned his face away from her, so that he should not look at this ‘strange’ woman, and said:
“Today is such a day, that whoever controls his eyes, his ears and his tongue against sin, shall be forgiven.”
Along the road Hazrat Fadhl R.A picked up the stones Rasulullah Sal’am required. People came to ask numerous questions which were answered. One person asked: “O Rasulullah Sal’am my mother has become very old and weak. Even if we should tie her on the back of a camel, we fear death will overtake her. Can I perform Haj on her behalf?” Rasulullah Sal’am replied: “if your mother had an outstanding debt, would you carry the burden of settling it?”
The man said: “Certainly.” Rasulullah Sal’am then went on: “So also should you take Haj.” Soon the procession passed Wadi-e-Muhassar. This was the place Allah destroyed Abraha and his forces who came with a mighty and elephants to destroy the Ka’bah. As they passed through this valley Rasulullah Sal’am drove his camel through it with haste, so as to pass quickly through a place where the wrath of Allah had once descended.
On arrival at Mina on the morning of the 10th Zil Haj they proceeded straight to the Jamaratul Aqaba and threw stones at it. The Talbiya that had continued up to this moment from the time ihraam was put on, was now stopped.
Rasulullah Sal’am then went to his tent (where he was to remain for the following two days) and gave another lengthy sermon. In it many things were explained such things were said as is normally said at a time of farewell.
Thereafter Rasulullah Sal’am went to the Man’har where animals are slaughtered and for every year of his 63 years of life he slaughtered a camel. A total of sixty-three camels. O these six or seven came forward of their own accord as if eager to be slaughtered in Allah’s way. Apart from these hazrat Ali R.A. slaughtered the rest to complete one hundred camels.
Thereafter an announcement was made that whoever desired could take pieces of meat to eat. Rasulullah Sal’am then commanded Hazrat Ali R.A. to cut a piece of meat from each of the slaughtered animals and boil it together in one pot. This was done and Rasulullah Sal’am ate from this gravy. Rasulullah Sal’am also slaughtered a cow on behalf of the woman of his household.
After this Hazrat Ma’mar R.A. or Hazrat Kharash R.A. was called to cut the hair of Rasulullah. The head was shaved, nails trimmed and the hair and nails distributed among the Sahaaba R.A. It is said that the hair of Rasulullah Sal’am which are still in the possession of some people to this day were received here at Mina. Having cut his hair Rasulullah Sal’am took off his ihraam clothes, applied scent to himself and put on his usual clothes.
Many people came to ask questions on Haj. On this day four things are to be done viz. Throwing stones at the Jamaratul Uqba, Qurbani, cutting of hair and tawaaf. These are to be performed in the prescribed order. Some Sahaaba R.A. made mistakes in not maintaining the correct order. They came to Rasulullah Sal’am and explained. And to almost all of them he said that not having stuck to the correct order was no sin. “Sin is to attack the honor and respect of a Muslim.”
At the time of Zuhr Salaah Rasulullah Sal’am left with his procession for Mecca to perform Tawaafuz-Ziyaarah. He performed Zuhr salaah in Mecca after tawaaf and then returned to Mina. He also visited the Bi’r-Zam Zam and drank to his fill with Zam Zam. According to some reports he drew the water himself and according to other reports he is said not to have drawn himself and to have said:
“Had I not feared that people will overcome you in conquest, I would have drawn water myself to drink.”
What actually could have taken place is that water was drawn many times. At some time wen he was alone Rasulullah Sal’am drew it up by himself and at another time when there was a huge crowd around, he had it drawn for him, Rasulullah Sal’am drank the Zam Zam while standing.
Then Rasulullah Sal’am performed saee between Safa and Marwa. Some reports deny it: the Hanafi accept it.
Returning to Mina Rasulullah Sal’am remained there for days and threw stones at the Jamaraat daily after Zawaal. Some reports also say that he went for tawaaf to the Baitullah every night. Many sermons were delivered at Mina. Once again there appeared these kind of farewell words:
“Perhaps I shall not again meet you here in future.”
Surah Nasr (Iza Jaa’a Nasrulllahi) was revealed. Some reports say it was already revealed in Madina before this time. After this revelation the Rasul Sal’am used to say that in this chapter he was given news of his coming death, which was near at hand. On the Tuesday 13th of Zil Haj after having thrown the last Jamaraat they left Mina or Mecca. Outside Mecca at Mahaaab (also called Bat’haa or Khaif bani Kinana) Rasulullah Sal’am’s slave Hazrat Abu Raafi R.A. had erected a tent and here Rasulullah Sal’am stopped to spend the night. Here he performed Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Esha salaahs. Than he rested for a while. This place was the one where in the 6th year of Islam the Infidels of Mecca had made an agreement among themselves to boycott the Muslims and Banu Haashim and to have no dealings with them whatsoever. No buying, selling, marriage, meeting etc. until such a time that Banu Haashim, the family of Rasulullah Sal’am, delivered him into their hands to deal with him as they saw fit. Their intention was to kill him. At this spot that agreement was written and signed. It is a well-known story and all know what the outcome was. Now Rasulullah Sal’am was sitting at the same place as the conqueror.
After resting for a while Rasulullah Sal’am led his companions for the farewell tawaaf. On this evening too he sent Hazrat Aa’isha R.A. with her brother Hazrat Abdur Rahmaan R.A. for an umrah to Tan’eem. When they had performed that and returned to Muhasaab, the command was given for the return to Madina.
On another point the ulama are not agreed. Did Rasululllah Ssal’am enter the Ka’bah on this Haj or not. We know definitely that he did enter but some ulama say it was at the time of the Conquest of Mecca. Some ulama say that before leaving for Madina Rasulullah Sal’am performed Fajr salaah in Mecca, wherein he recited surah Toor and then left Mecca on the morning of Wednesday 14th Zil Haj in the year 10 Hijri. On the 18th Zil Haj Rasulullah Sal’am stopped at Ghadeer-Kham, near Juh’fa and there ascended a lofty place to deliver a sermon. In this sermon he also extolled the virtues of Hazrat Sayidna Ali R.A. This is the moment which the Rafihis (the Shias) have mistakenly called Eid of Ghadeer. Hazrat Sayidna Ali R.A. used to say:
“With regard (to their relationship) to me two groups had gone astray viz. Those who exceed all bounds in their love for me and those whose excessive hatred exceeded all bounds.”
(See Tarikh al Khulafa as reported by Haakim; reference here is to the Shias and Kharijis).
The procession spent the night at Zul Hulaifa. After performing Fajr salaah they entered Madina of Maaras while reading this duaa:
“We return, seeking repentance and worshipping Allah while we indeed praise our Lord.”
In the year 1342 Hijri I wrote a booklet on the Hajjatul Widaa. (The farewell Haj) in Arabic wherein I complied all the different reports into one complete continuous report of the Haj of Rasulullah Sal’am. Therein I also noted the source of each incident, discussed the fiqh aspects and noted the original source of every Hadith. It is from that book that I have copied this portion concerning the Hajjatul Widaa. (This book has now been printed both in Arabic and in Urdu-Translator)
After Haj Rasulullah Sal’am lived for two more months before he passed away. Hazrat Abi Bakr R.A. became the first Khalifa.
During his first year of Khilaafat, he himself did not go for Haj but appointed Hazrat Umar R.A as the leader of pilgrims (Ameerul-Haj) to Mecca. The following year he led the Muslims himself for Haj. When Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A. passed away he was followed by Hazrat Umar R.A. as the second Khalifa, who in the first year sent Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Owf R.A. himself led the Hajis. In fact during the last year of his Khilaafat he went out of his way to take the women folk from the household of Rasulullah Sal’am for Haj. When Hazrat Uthman R.A. was chosen as the third Khalifa he also did not go for Haj in the first year i.e. 24 Hijri and appointed Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Owf R.A. as Ameerul Haj. Then from 25 A.H. to 34 A.H. he led them himself. When he was imprisoned in his house, Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbaas R.A. was appointed Ameerul-Haj.
Although Hazrat Sayidna Ali R.A. performed Haj on numerous occasions before his Khilaafat, he was never able to perform Haj afterwards as a result of his pre-occupation with wars, e.g. Battle of Jamal, Battle of Siffeen etc.