Bahishti Zewar, Fiqh, Part 1-Beliefs & Laws of Tahara / Saturday, August 16th, 2008


  1. It is permissible to make wudhu and ghusl with rain-water and water from rivers, canals, springs, wells, dams and seas irrespective of whether the water is sweet or salty.

  2. It is not permissible to make wudhu with the juice extracted from any fruit, tree, or leaf. In the same way, the water which comes out from a water-melon or sugar-cane, etc. cannot be used for wudhu or ghusl.

  3. If something is mixed or boiled in water in such a way that it is no more referred to as water but is called by some other name, then wudhu and ghusl with it is not permissible. For example, wudhu is not permissible with any syrup, juice, soup, vinegar, rose-water, etc.

  4. A pure substance falls in the water and some change has taken place in the colour, smell and taste of the water. However, that thing was not boiled in the water, nor was there any change in the density (liquidity) of the water. For example, some sand falls in flowing water, or saffron falls in the water and slightly changes its colour, or soap, or any such thing falls in the water – in all these cases wudhu and ghusl will be permissible with such water.

  5. If anything has been cooked or boiled in water and it has changed its colour or taste, wudhu with such water will not be permissible. However, if any such thing is boiled in the water which purifies it and does not make it thicker, then wudhu with such water is permissible. For example, berry leaves are boiled in water to bathe a dead person. There is no harm in this. However, if a large quantity is boiled which causes the water to get thick, then wudhu and ghusl will not be proper with such water.

  6. Water in which saffron or powder has been dissolved for dyeing a cloth cannot be used to make wudhu.

  7. If milk is mixed in water and its colour is dominant, wudhu is not permissible. But if the milk was very little and did not affect the colour of the water, wudhu with it will be permissible.

  8. If a small quantity of water is found in a jungle, one can continue using it for wudhu as long as its impurity (najaasat) is not established. wudhu should not be abandoned merely on the premise that perhaps it is impure. If, in the presence of such water, one makes tayammum, that tayammum will not be accepted.

  9. Some tree-leaves fell in a well, etc. The water began to smell and its colour and taste also changed. wudhu with such water will still be permissible as long as its density does not change.

  10. The water in which some impurity falls cannot be used for wudhu or ghusl irrespective of whether the impurity is little or plentiful. However, if the water is flowing, it will not be rendered impure by the falling of some impurity in it until and unless its colour, taste or smell changes. If due to the impurity, the colour, taste or smell of the water changes, then even flowing water will be impure and wudhu will not be permissible. That water which carries away grass, straws, leaves, etc. will be regarded as flowing water no matter how slowly it flows.

  11. A large pond or tank which measures about 5 x 5 metres and is so deep that when a handful of water is scooped from it, its bed is not visible – is also regarded as flowing water. If such an impurity falls into it which cannot be seen after having fallen into it, eg. urine, blood, wine, etc. then wudhu can be made from any of the four sides. But if an impurity which is visible, falls into it, eg. a dead dog, then wudhu cannot be made from that side in which it fell. Any of the other sides can be used.

    But even in such a tank, if some impurity falls and changes the colour, taste or smell of the water, it will become impure.

  12. The water of a tank measuring about ten by two and half metres or twelve and half by two metres, is also treated as 5 x 5 metres.

  13. Impurity fell on the roof. When it rained, the water came down the drains. If half or more of the roof was impure then that water will be impure. If less than half of the roof was impure, that water will be pure. If the impurity is only near the drain and it is such that all the water comes down from that drain alone, then that water will be impure.

  14. If water is flowing very slowly, wudhu should not be performed very hastily so that the water which was used does not come back in the hands.

  15. If, from a tank measuring about 5 x 5 metres, water is taken from the place where the used water had fallen, this is also permissible.

  16. If a non-Muslim or child puts his hand in the water, it will not become impure. However, if it becomes known that there was some impurity in the hands, the water will be impure. But because children cannot be trusted, it would be preferable not to use that water until some other water is not found.

  17. If a living creature whose blood does not flow, eg. a mosquito, fly, wasp, gnat, scorpion, bee, etc. dies in the water or falls into it after dying, the water does not become impure.

  18. If creatures which are born in water and remain in water all the time die, the water does not become polluted but remains pure. Such creatures are: fish, frogs, turtles, crabs, etc.

    If such creatures fall in anything else besides water, eg. vinegar, syrup, milk, etc. then even these liquids will not become impure. The rule is the same for the land and water frogs, i.e. their dead bodies do not pollute the water. However, if the land frog has flowing blood, then by its death the water, etc. will become impure. Note: The distinguishing feature between the land and water frog is that the feet of the water frog are webbed while those of the land frog are not webbed.

  19. Creatures which live in water but are not born in water, such as ducks and water-fowls, if they die, the water becomes polluted and impure. Similarly, if they die outside and then fall in the water, it becomes impure.

  20. If a frog, turtle, etc. dies in the water and disintegrates and breaks down into minute fragments and gets completely mixed in the water – even then the water will be pure. However, it is not proper to drink that water or cook food with it. wudhu and ghusl can be made with it.

  21. By using water heated directly by the sun there is a fear of contacting leprosy. Therefore, wudhu and ghusl should not be made with such water.

  22. When the skin of a dead animal is dried or treated chemically in such a way that the water is removed completely and when stored it does not get decomposed – then it becomes purified and salaat can be offered on it. It can also be used for making water bags. However, the skin of a pig can never be purified. All other skins can be purified. But to use or utilise the skin of a human being is a major sin.

  23. The skins of dogs, monkeys, cats, lions, etc. which become pure after treating them chemically can also be made pure by reciting Bismillah and slaughtering them. This is irrespective of whether they have been treated chemically or not. However, by slaughtering them, their meat does not become pure nor is it permissible to eat them.

  24. The hair, horns, bones and teeth of dead animals are pure. If they fall in water, it will not become impure. However, if the bones, teeth, etc. have some fat of the dead animal on them, they will be regarded as impure, and if they fall in water, it will also be rendered impure.

  25. The bones and hair of human beings are also pure. But to use them in any way is not permissible. Instead, they should be buried in the ground with respect.

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