Q. “If one is offering prayers (salah) in congregation (Jama’ah) and he commits a mistake under which sajdah for repentence becomes mandatory, then, can he offer such a sajdah at the end of the prayers (salah)? If yes, please specify the correct procedure for the same and clarify the situations under which one must perform such a sajdah while in congregational prayers”. (Ibid)
A. If a person offering his salah with jama’ah commits a mistake behind his Imam which is normally remedied by the sajdah of sahw, he need not, and should not, offer the sajdah of sahw, because the sajdah of sahw is obligatory only on a person praying individually or on a person leading the prayer. As for a person praying behind his Imam as a muqtadi, the rules of sajdah of sahw are not applicable on him. His salah will be valid without the sajdah of sahw, unless he leaves an obligatory (Fard) act altogather, like the sajdah, or ruku’ etc. In which case the sajdah of sahw will not be sufficient to correct the error, but his salah will be void and he will have to offer the prayer once again.
As for those mistakes which are remedied by the sajdah of sahw for an Imam or for a person praying individually they are forgiven for a person praying behind the Imam, and his salah is deemed to be complete without the sajdah of sahw.
However, if the person has missed one or two rak’at from the jama’ah and he is offering the missed rak’at on his own after the congregational prayer is over, and he makes a mistake for his duration, he will have to offer the sajdah of sahw, because, while completing the missed raka’at he is deemed to be a person who offers the prayer individually, and the sajdah of sahw is obligatory on him like any other individual.
Q. “Is it permissible, under the Shariah, to make supplication (Du’a) while one is in Sajdah. It is commonly observed that some people after completing their prayer (salah) fall in sajdah and offer supplications in that position. Please explain the correct way in this respect.
(Muhammad Yousuf Ghani, Karachi)
A. Supplication during sajdah is permissible, but the following points should alway be kept in mind:
(a) While offering sajdah in a regular prayer (salah) the medium of supplication should always be Arabic language. It is not permissible to use any other language during salah.
(b) One should restrict himself, as far as possible, to the supplications contained in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah. How ever, if one likes to pray in his own Arabic words, the prayers should be restricted to those things only which cannot be asked from a human being, such as
“O Allah, forgive my sins and the sins of my wife and my children.”
This Arabic supplication is permissible because forgiveness of sins can be asked from a human being cannot be asked in a prayer offered while performing salah, such as (O Allah, make me marry such and such women). If somebody prays for such mundane things which can be asked from a human being also, the salah will be rendered void, even if
the medium of prayer is Arabic language.
(c) Although offering supplications during sajdah is permissible with the conditions mentioned above, it is more advisable to avoid it during the Fard salah, and restrict it to the Nawafil only.
All the rules mentioned above relate to the supplications offered in a sajdah which forms part of salah. However, if someone makes a sajdah out of salah for the purpose of supplication only, there is no prohibition, nor is it necessary to observe
the conditions mentioned in (a),(b) or (c) above. In such a position one can pray in whatever language one deems fit.
It is, therefore, permissible to make sajdah for the purpose of supplication after the salah is over. However, this should not be made a permanent practice after every salah, because the Holy Prophet ( Sallaho Alaihai Wasallam ) used to pray after salah in a sitting position, and it is in no way advisable to leave this sunnah of the Holy Prophet ( Sallaho Alaihai Wasallam ) forever.