1. For every fard-e-ayn salaat, it is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for men to call out adhaan once. This is irrespective of whether a person is a traveller or not, whether he is reading in congregation or alone, or whether he is reading a qada salaat or not. For jumu’ah salaat, the adhaan should be called out twice.
2. If a salaat was missed for a reason in which all the people were involved, then the adhaan for that salaat should be given aloud. If it was missed for some specific reason, it should be given secretly in a soft voice so that people do not come to know of any missed salaat by hearing the adhaan aloud. The reason for this is that missing a salaat is a sign of negligence and laziness, and to be negligent and lazy in affairs of the Deen is a sin. And it is not good to announce or expose one’s sins. If several salaats were missed and all are being read at one time, it will be sunnah to call out the adhaan for the first salaat only. As for the other salaats, only the iqaamah is sunnah. However, it is mustahab to call out adhaan for each salaat separately.
3. If a person is travelling and all his companions are present with him, then it will be mustahab, and not sunnat-e-mu’akkadah, for him to give the adhaan.
4. If a person offers his salaat at home, whether alone or in congregation, then both the adhaan and the iqaamah will be mustahab for him on condition that the adhaan and iqaamah of the musjid of that area or town has already been called out. This is so because the adhaan and iqaamah of the area is sufficient for all the residents of that area.
5. If a person goes to a musjid in which the adhaan, iqaamah and salaat has already been performed,it will be makruh for him to give adhaan and iqaamah when offering his own salaat. However, if that musjid does not have any appointed imam or mu’azzin, it will not be makruh, but preferable.
6. A person is in a place in which all the conditions for jumu’ah salaat are found and jumu’ah is even performed there. Despite this, he offers zuhr salaat instead of jumu’ah salaat. It will therefore be makruh for him to call out adhaan and iqaamah. This is irrespective of whether he offers the zuhr salaat due to some excuse or not, or whether he offers it before the completion of the jumu’ah salaat or after its completion.
7. It is makruh for women to call out adhaan and iqaamah irrespective of whether they are offering their salaat in congregation or individually.
8. Apart from fard-e-ayn salaat, adhaan for any other salaat is not prescribed – irrespective of whether it is a fard-e-kifaayah salaat, such as janaazah salaat; or a wajib salaat, such as witr salaat, the salaats of eid; or whether it is a nafl salaat.
9. It is mustahab on the person who hears the adhaan to reply to it irrespective of whether he is a man or woman, in a state of purity or impurity. Some ulama have even said that it is wajib. But the preferred opinion is that it is mustahab. Replying to the adhaan means that the words which the mu’azzin says should be repeated. However, when replying to Hayya alas salaat and Hayya alal falaah, he should say La hawla wa la quwwata illa billahil aliyyil azeem. For As-salaato khairun minan naum he should say Sadaqta wa bararta. After the adhaan he should send salutations to Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and then read the following dua:
10. On hearing the adhaan of jumu’ah, it is wajib to leave whatever one may be occupied with, and go for the jumu’ah salaat in a jaame musjid. It is haraam to occupy oneself in any transaction or any other sort of work.
11. Replying to the iqaamah is also mustahab and not wajib. In replying to Qad qaamatis salaat, one should say Aqaamahallahu wa adaamaha.
12. In eight conditions an answer to the adhaan should not be given:
(1) while offering salaat,
(2) while listening to a khutbah irrespective of whether it is a khutbah of jumu’ah or any other khutbah,
(3,4) when one is in a state of haid or nifaas, i.e. it is not necessary to give an answer,
(5) while one is teaching or learning knowledge of the Deen,
(6) while one is having sexual intercourse,
(7) while one is relieving oneself,
(8) while one is eating, i.e. it is not necessary. After having completed these occupations, and much time has not lapsed since hearing the adhaan; one should reply to it, otherwise one should not reply.
13. A person forgets to reply to the adhaan or intentionally does not reply to it. On the completion of the adhaan he remembers or decides to reply to it. If much time has not lapsed, he should reply to it, otherwise he should not reply.
14. If considerable time has passed after having called out the iqaamah and the congregation has not stood up as yet, the iqaamah should be repeated. But if much time has not passed, it does not have to be repeated. The iqaamah for fajr salaat has been called out but the imaam has not offered his sunnah salaat of fajr as yet. If he occupies himself in offering his sunnah, then the time that he takes will not be regarded as a long time and it will therefore not be necessary to repeat the iqaamah. However, if one occupies oneself with something that is not a part of salaat, such as eating and drinking, then in this case the iqaamah will have to be repeated.
15. While the mu’azzin calls out the adhaan; he dies, falls unconscious, his voice breaks down completely or he forgets and there is no one to correct him, or his wudu breaks and he rushes to repeat it – in all these cases it will be sunnat-e-mu’akkadah to repeat the adhaan.
16. If a person’s wudu breaks while he is calling out the adhaan or iqaamah, it will be preferable for him to complete the adhaan or iqaamah and thereafter perform his wudu.
17. It is makruh for one mu’azzin to call out adhaan in two musjids. He should call out adhaan in the musjid in which he offers his fard salaat.
18. It is the right of the person who calls out the adhaan to call out the iqaamah as well. But if after calling out the adhaan he goes away somewhere or permits someone else to call out the iqaamah, then someone else can call out the iqaamah.
19. It is permissible for several mu’azzins to call out adhaan at the same time.
20. The mua’zzin should complete his iqaamah at the place where he commenced with it.
21. Niyyah is not a condition for adhaan and iqaamah. However, one is not rewarded without making an intention. The intention is this that he is calling out this adhaan solely for the pleasure of Allah and for the reward of it, and for no other reason.