It is narrated in the traditions that on standing up to Salaah the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) would say Allahu Akbar (ALLAH is most great), and saying this Takbir-e-Tahrimah, he would raise his hands upto his ears. He would then fold his hands, putting the right hand on the wrist of the left. Thereafter he would recite the SANA (HYMN). Then he would recite Surah FATIHAH at the end of which he would say Ameen.
According to Hanafi school of thought Ameen is to be recited in a low pitch. It is reported on the authority of Hadrat ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) that the imam (one who is leading the Salaah) should recite the SANA. TA’AWWUZ and BISMILLAAH including Ameen on a low pitch.
After reciting Surah al-Fatihah the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) would recite some other surah (Chapter) from the Holy QURAAN. Having done this recitation, he would bow himself into RUKU saying Allaahu Akbar (ALLAH is most great). On rising himself up he would say. [SAMI ALLAHU-LI-MAN HAMIDAH]
In performing the ruku he would place his hands firmly on the knees separating the fingers a little. According to the Ulama during Salaah the fingers have three different postures: in ‘ruku’ they are kept separate from each other, in ‘sajdah’ they should be close together and in the rest of the Salaah he kept on their normal condition whether in Qiyam or in tashahhud.’ During ruku the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) would keep his elbows aloof from his side and his back straight and would either lower his head below the level of the back nor raise it higher. In this posture he would say ‘Glory be to my Lord, the Great. thrice (This is the minimum number. He would mostly say it many times more than this. To say it more but in odd numbers is considered excellent).
When he raised his head from ‘ruku’ he would not prostrate himself until he had stood perfectly upright. While prostrating himself he would first place the knees on the ground and then the hands: then he would place the nose and then forehead on the ground. During prostration he would keep the body so far from the thighs that a kid could pass through and would keep the head between the two palms and the toes pointing towards the Qiblah. In this position he would say: (‘Glory be to my Lord, the Highest)
when he raised his head from prostration he would sit upright and then bow for the second ‘Sajdah’. Whenever the Qiyam was long, the ruku’, sajdah and jalsah (sitting) would also be long and whenever the Qiyam was short, these postures would also be short. [Madarijun Nubuwah]
He used to recite the ‘tahiyah’ after every two ‘rakats’. [Sahih Muslim]
It is narrated in a tradition from Hadrat Wail bin HIJAR (Radi Allaahu Ta’ala Anhu) that while he raised himself up from ‘sajdah’ for ‘Qiyam’ (standing erect) he would take the support of thighs and knees. The sunnah is to place the hands on the knees for support in standing up. It has been related on the authority of Hadrat However, depending On circumstances- fatigue advanced age and infirmity – it is permissible to place the hands on the ground for support. [Madarij -un- Nubuwah]
Whenever the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) sat for (tahiyah) ‘TashahhUd’ he would sit on his left foot bent under him and would keep the right foot standing. This also used to be his posture for ‘tashahhud’ for the last ‘rak’ah’. In reciting the tashahhUd he would place the hands on the thighs and would raise the first finger of the right hand. (The way to do this is to bend the little finger and the ring finger towards the palm, join the middle finger and the thumb to make a circle and raise the forefinger while saying la-ilaha’ (there is no God) and lower it while saying ‘illallah’ (save ALLAH). [Madarij -un- nubuWah]
According to the traditions from Hadrat ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud and Hadrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (Radi Allaahu Ta’ala Anhu) the Prophet (SallallahU Alaihi Wa Sallam) enjoined that ‘tahiyah’ should be recited in the following words: [Muslim, Ma’rif -ul- Hadis]
Hadrat ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abu Laila (Radi AllaahU Ta’ala Anhu) narrated that ka’b bin ‘Ujra (Radi Allaahu Ta’ala Anhu) met him and asked him if he would like to present him with something he had heard from the Prophet (SallallahU Alaihi Wa Sallam). He expressed his desire to hear that and he said: “We asked ALLAH’S messenger the question, “How is blessing to be invoked on those who belong to the prophet’s family? ALLAH has taught us (only) to salute you” He told us to say: O’ ALLAH! Exalt Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) and the true followers of Muhammad as Thou did exalt Ibrahim and the true followers of Ibrahim; Surely Thou art praised, magnified. O’ ALLAH! Bless Muhammad and the True Followers of Muhammad as Thou did bless Ibrahim and the true followers of Ibrahim; Surely Thou art praised, magnified. [Bukhari, Muslim, Ma’rif -ul- Hadis]
Another companion of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) Hadrat Abu Mas’ud Ansari (Radi Allaahu Ta’ala Anhu) has also narrated a tradition with similar wordings. [Madarijun Nubuwah]
Tabarani, lbn Majah and Daraqutani report a tradition from Hadrat Suhail bin Sa’d (Radi Allaahu Ta’ala Anhu) that ALLAH’s messenger said, “The Salaah of one is void who does not invoke blessings on his Prophet.” [Madarijun Nubuwah]