FREE WILL AND CHOICE


DIFFERENCES IN THE UMMAT AND SIRAAT-E- MUSTAQEEM, Fiqh / Thursday, January 6th, 2011

A clear result of establishing divine qualities for Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) would be to liken him and grant him a share in divinity. Due to this some people aver that Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) has control over the doings of the universe and that Allaah Ta`ala had given Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) complete choice and will in the running of the universe.

Owing to this claim people have given Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) the title of „Mukhtaar-e-Kul‟. However, in the light of the Qur`aan Majeed, Sunnah and beliefs of the Ahle Sunnah, there is absolutely no scope or proof for such claims, that Allaah Ta`ala had granted Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) or anyone else total or part choice and will in the running of the universe. The Aqaa`id of Islaam is that Only Allaah Ta`ala and none else has control and power over the universe. In this, He has no partner or helper. Death, life, health, sickness, etc. everything is totally in His Control. This is precisely the reason why every prophet from the time of Hadhrat Aadam (alaihi salaam) until Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam), every one of them supplicated and pleaded to Allaah Ta`ala and all of them understood that He Alone was the Owner of benefit and harm. This was also the condition of every Auliyaa of Allaah Ta`ala. No Nabi, Wali, Sadeeq or Shaheed ever made this claim that he be granted or was granted control over the universe. Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) himself held the following belief:

“Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: „Once I was saddled behind Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) and he said to me: „O son! You protect the rights of Allaah, and Allaah Ta`ala will protect you. You protect the rights of Allaah and you will find Him by your side. When you are need of something then ask from Allaah Ta`ala. When you are in need of assistance, then seek assistance only from Allaah Ta`ala. And have firm faith that if the entire creation gathers in  order to benefit you, then they will not be able to benefit you one bit, except what Allaah Ta`ala had decreed for you. And if the entire creation gathers to harm you, then they will never be able to harm you one bit, except what Allaah Ta`ala had decreed for you.” [Mishkaat Shareef, page 453]

Sheikh Ali Qaari (rahmatullahi alaih) states in commentary of this Hadith:

“”Ask of Allaah”, i.e. ask only of Allaah Ta`ala, because the treasures of giving is totally in His Control. The keys for giving and granting lies only in His Hands. Every benefit or harm which reaches the servant or warded off from him, whether it be in this world or hereafter, are all owing to His Mercy without any intermediaries or means. This is so because He is The Generous One. He is so Independent that He requires none. It is for this reason that one should only have hopes in His Mercy. All one‟s great desires and needs should be presented in His Court and trust on any matter should only be on His Being. Besides Him do not ask of anyone, because besides Him, none else has the power to give, nor to prevent, nor to ward off difficulties, nor benefit. Besides Him none else has even the ability or choice over good or evil for themselves. Nor does anyone, besides Him, have the choice of life, death or even standing up.”

Further on, he writes, commenting on “Entire creation”:

“ „Indeed the entire Ummat‟, i.e. the entire creation. If the special servants of Allaah Ta`ala, the general public, the Ambiyaa, Auliyaa and the entire Ummat, in essence, are unanimous in that they wish to benefit you in a certain thing, whether it be a worldly thing or something for the hereafter, then they will not have the power or ability to benefit you.” [Mirqaatul Mafaateeh, page 91, vol. 5]

Hadhrat Abdul Qaadir Jilaani (rahmatullahi alaih) states in „Al-Fathur Rabbaani‟, majlis 61:

“Indeed the creation is helpless and incapable. They have neither destruction nor ownership in their hands, neither wealth nor poverty, neither harm nor benefit. None has any ownership except Allaah Ta`ala. There is no power but  His. There is no giver, preventer, harmer or benefactor but Him. There is none who can give life or death but Him.”
This is the belief of all the Auliyaa of Allaah Ta`ala and elders of the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamaat. Those miracles of the Ambiyaa and Karaamaat of the Auliyaa, which manifested at their hands was in actual fact the doing of Allaah Ta`ala via them. This is the reason why they are called Mu`jizah and Karaamat. To see a Mu`jizah or Karaamat and to interpret it as being a partnership in divinity or has having a choice in the administration of the universe, is sheer stupidity. This is the self-same stupidity that led the Christians into taking Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam) as a deity when they saw his miracles (example, giving life to the dead). The main and prime objective and message of every prophet was to invite towards the Oneness of Allaah Ta`ala, in His Being, Qualities and Actions. There are many proofs that are forwarded in the Qur`aan Majeed on numerous occasions and ways proving the Oneness of Allaah Ta`ala. Amongst them are: “Say! Who is the controller of the universe?” “Who grants sustenance?” “In whose control is death, life, health and sickness?” “Who is the owner of benefit and harm?” etc., etc. – it is clear and evident that if all these things are attributed to others besides Allaah Ta`ala then at last 1/3 of the Qur`aan Majeed would be Baatil. Here it would also be prudent to remember that with regard to the Injunctions of Allaah Ta`ala they are categorised into two sections; one is regarding the laws of Shariah which the Ambiyaa (alaihimus salaam) teach and demonstrate to their Ummats. The second is regarding the creation, which applies to every creation in the universe. Just like none is free from the injunctions of the Shariah, regardless of how close he/she may be to Allaah Ta`ala, so too, is none excluded from accepting the matters and injunctions regarding creation.

None, regardless of whether he is in the heavens or earth, whether it is an angel or a prophet, everyone are subjected to the system of Allaah Ta`ala in so far as the administration of the universe is concerned. Everyone is subject to His Decree and Destiny. Some people transfer the administration of the universe to Auliyaa and Ambiyaa, whereas those very personalities to whom Allaah Ta`ala had granted His recognition, have never laid claim to this partnership. They maintained that everything in the total control of Allaah Ta`ala Rabbul Izzat. Hence, to regard these personalities as having control in the universe is to contradict their very teachings and beliefs! These four Masaa`il (discussed above) are the important ones which are related to Aqaa`id. Besides these there are a few others also, wherein there are differences. I will also briefly enumerate on these.

One Reply to “FREE WILL AND CHOICE”

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