Fidyah is the compensation which has to be paid for the Saum which has not been executed on account of permanent disability, etc.
(1) The Fidyah amount for each compulsory fast not kept is the same as Sadqah Fitr, viz. 2kg bread flour or its cash equivalent or feeding a miskeen (poor person) two full meals for a day.
(2) Unlike Kaffarah, it is permissible to distribute the Fidyah amount among several masakeen (poor persons).
(3) Fidyah (as well as Kaffarah) money/food can be given to only such Muslims who are allowed to accept Zakat.
(4) If by the time maut (death) approaches, one has not yet paid the Fidyah, it will be Wajib to make a wasiyyat (bequest) for the Fidyah to be paid.
(5) A person who is allowed to pay Fidyah for undischarged Saum, on recovering his health after having paid the Fidyah, is obliged to fast the number of days he had missed. The Fidyah thus paid will become a Nafl charity.
Wasiyyat is a bequest which a person has to make with regard to undischarged Saum.
(1) If by the time of the approach of maut (death) a person has not executed his obligation of qadha Saum or Fidyah, it will be Wajib (obligatory) on him/her to make a wasiyyat, declaring that Fidyah for the undischarged Saum obligation be paid on his/her behalf.
(2) Once the mayyit (deceased) has made a wasiyyat, it will be wajib on the executors/heirs of the mayyit’s estate to pay the Fidyah from the estate of the deceased, i.e. from one third of the estate.
(3) If the Fidyah amount exceeds one third of the estate, payment of the excess from the mayyit’s estate is not permissible. However, if all the adult heirs willingly consent to the payment of the full Fidyah (i.e. including the excess), it will be permissible. The consent of minors is not valid, hence the excess (i.e. more than one third the value of the estate) cannot be paid from the shares of the minor heirs.