If a person experiences hadath in his salaat, his salaat will become invalid if he experienced hadath-e-akbar, whereby ghusl becomes wajib. If he experiences hadath-e-asghar, it will either be two things: this hadath-e-asghar will either be ikhtiyaari or ghair ikhtiyaari. Ikhtiyaari means it was caused or brought about by the will of man. Ghayr ikhtiyaari means that it was not caused or not brought about by the will of man.
1. To give luqmah to anyone other than the imam
while one is in salaat makes that salaat invalid. To give luqmah means to
correct someone who has made a mistake in reciting the Quran. Note: Since
there is a difference of opinion among the jurists with regard to the masa’il
of luqmah, some ulama have written special books on this subject. We are
therefore mentioning a few details over here.
1. If a person reaches the musjid of his area or the musjid
nearest to his home at a time when the jama’at is over, then it is mustahab
for him to go to another musjid with the intention of getting the jama’at over
there. He also has the choice of returning home, getting his house-folk together
and making jama’at with them.
1. The mudrik does not have to make any qira’at. The qira’at of the imam is sufficient for all the muqtadis. According to the Hanafee school of thought, it is makruh for the muqtadis to make qira’at behind the imam.
2. It is fard on the masbuq to make qira’at for the rakaats which he missed.
3. In other words, the muqtadi should not make qira’at in the presence of the imam. However, the masbuq has to make qira’at because the imam is not present for the rakaats which he missed.
1. It is the duty of the muqtadis to choose the person who possesses the best characteristics from among all those who are present and to appoint him as the imam. If there are several people who are worthy of imaamat and they are all equal, then they should act according to the decision of the majority. That is, they should choose the person whom the majority of the people prefer. If they choose someone who is less capable despite there being a person who is more capable, they will be guilty of abandoning the sunnah.
1. Jama’at is a prerequisite for the salaats of jumu’ah and the two eids. In
other words, these salaats are not valid when offered alone.
1. Islam – the jama’at of a kaafir is not valid.
2. To be in one’s senses – the jama’at of an intoxicated, unconscious or lunatic
person is not valid.
3. In addition to making the intention of salaat, the muqtadi must also make the
intention of following the imam. In other words, he must have this intention in
his heart that he is offering a particular salaat behind this imam. The masaa’il
related to intention have already been mentioned.
1. To be a male – jama’at is not wajib on women.
2. To be mature – jama’at is not wajib on children who have not reached the age
3. To be a free person – jama’at is not wajib on a slave.
4. One must be in one’s senses – jama’at is not wajib on a person who is
intoxicated, unconscious, or a lunatic.
5. To be free from all excuses – in the presence of these excuses, jama’at is
not wajib. However, it will be better if he offers his salaat with jama’at
despite having an excuse. If he does not offer with jama’at, he will be deprived
of the reward. The excuses for leaving out jama’at are fourteen:
The ulama have written considerably on this subject. But as far as I know, there isn’t a more comprehensive and eloquent article than that which has been written by Hadrat Maulana Shah Wali Ullah rahmatullahi alayh. Although it would have been preferable for me to quote his article word for word, for the sake of brevity, I will merely give a summary of what he has written.
1. There is nothing more beneficial or profitable than making a particular form of ibaadah into a second nature to the extent that that ibaadah becomes a necessity and it becomes impossible to leave it just as it is almost impossible to give up a particular habit. And there is no form of ibaadah greater than salaat which could be accorded such importance.
We have quoted a few sayings of the Sahabah, which in reality portray the
words of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Now let us look at the ulama
and mujtahideen and see what they have to say in regard to jama’at and how they
understood these Ahadith.
1. The Zaahiriyyah and a few followers of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal rahmatullahi
alayh say that jama’at is a prerequisite in order for the salaat to be valid.
Without jama’at, the salaat is not valid.